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Genital pain

Female Genital Pains 

Menstrual Pains

Reoccurring pain is often associated with menstruation. Pain may appear before, during or after menstruation and is blunt and achy in nature. It is typically felt in the lower abdominal area, possibly also in the lower back. The pain is most often harmless and is not caused by an illness.

To check out the symptoms with a doctor, visit will eliminate the possibility of illness. Menstrual pain can generally be treated with anti-inflammatories. Giving birth often reduces the symptoms.

Various illnesses may also cause pain associated with menstruation. These may include developmental disturbances of the uterus, endometriosis, uterus that is tilted backwards, complications from ovarian infections, uterine myomas, and damage that occurred during labor. A doctor’s examination will give an idea of the nature of the problem.


When tissue resembling mucous membrane of the uterus is found outside the uterus, it may cause pain at different times of the menstrual cycle. Infertility may be associated with these problems. The pain can be an ache or a stabbing pain. Stomach may distend. Shaking makes the pain come worse.

If tissue grows near the intestines or urinary organs, diarrhea or urinary problems may be present. There is usually less bleeding during the menstrual period, and a person’s temperature may be elevated for a few days just before menstruation.

Self-treatment includes anti-inflammatories. The treating doctor may consider hormone therapy and surgery.


An infection of the reproductive organs usually travels upward through the cervix into the uterus and from there into the ovaries. The infection may spread from the ovaries into the abdominal cavity.

The most common symptoms of an ovarian infection are abdominal pain and fever. The examining doctor will find tenderness in the infected area, and laboratory tests show signs of an infection. Treatment mainly consists of antibiotics. Surgery is sometimes necessary.

There are infections of the vagina as well. The most common symptoms are an increased, sometimes foul smelling discharge from the vagina, pain, and urinary symptoms. The culprits are usually trichomonas, yeast, gonococcus and other bacteria. Diagnosis is possible after a culture. Treatment consists of using appropriate medication for each cause.

Tumors of the Uterus

Tumors of the uterine tissue, or myomas, are remarkably common. Small myomas are painless. There may be some pain as they grow if they press on nerve structures during the process. Urinary symptoms, constipation, or back pain may be present as well, if there is pressure on the bladder or the intestines.

Urinary retention or edema in the legs are sometimes present with large-size myomas. If the cervix is constricted or there is necrosis or hemorrhage in the myoma, sudden, severe pain may come.

Other Tumors

Cervical cancer is the most common cancer of women’s reproductive organs. It is most prevalent in women aged 45-50. There are few symptoms at the onset, and they usually include discharge mixed with blood or brown in color. Pain is usually not present at the onset.

Cancer of the body of the uterus is most prevalent in women aged 55-60. Most get sick after menopause. The main symptom is usually bloody discharge. Pain will appear only at a later stage.

Tumors of the ovaries are often asymptomatic in the beginning. Only when the tumor grows may symptoms appear. The tumors are often found in routine check-ups.


Repeated or straining births may cause tears and stretching of the muscles. This may cause prolapse of the reproductive organs.

Straining of the ligaments may cause back pain. A bend may appear in the urethra, which causes urinary symptoms. Patient may have difficulty with bowel movements and may experience vaginal bleeding.

Treatment is surgery.

Ectopic Pregnancy

A fertilized egg may attach itself outside the uterine cavity and develop there for some time. This usually takes place in the fallopian tubes. It is rare that growth continues past the midpoint of the pregnancy.

Periods are usually delayed in ectopic pregnancy. Sometimes the symptoms may arise even before the first menstrual period is missed. Normal signs of pregnancy are there. Pain in the lower abdomen may be sudden and powerful and is often accompanied by uterine bleeding. Bleeding may cause a rapid deterioration in a person’s health.

Immediate surgery is necessary. If an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, go to the emergency room immediately.

Venereal Diseases

Women may have only few symptoms. Women become symptomatic within the first two weeks. Symptoms may include pain in the lower abdomen, leukorrhea, and burning during urination. If the disease is not treated in its early stage, complications such as polyarthritis may appear.

Diagnosis can be made by staining or from a culture taken from the infected fluid. Treatment consists of antibiotics.


Abdominal pain and bloody discharge if pregnancy is a possibility.

See a Doctor

Abdominal pain accompanied by urinary symptoms.
Abdominal pain accompanied with fever.
Prolonged abdominal pain anywhere in the abdomen.
Increased vaginal discharge.
Bloody vaginal discharge.
Foul-smelling vaginal discharge.
Discharge from the urinary tract.
Burning during urination.

Female Genital Pain, more information: pages on menstrual cramps. pages about endometriosis.
eMedicineHealth pages about infections of reproductive organs. pages about myomas.
NHS Choices about cervical cancer.
NHS Choices about cancers of the uterus. pages on prolapsed uterus. pages on ectopic pregnancy. pages on sexually transmitted diseases in women.

Female and Male Genital Pains

Urinary Infections

Pains in the lower urinary tract and bladder are usually felt in the lower abdomen near the pubic bone, in the groin or genital area. Often there are also other symptoms like increased need to urinate, burning or problems of urinating.

Burning during urination may be caused by a problem in the bladder, prostate or urinary tract. The pain felt at the beginning of urination is usually connected to problems of the urinary tract and is caused by urine flowing through the painful area. An inflamed bladder contracting after it is emptied often causes pain at the end of urination.

The most common problem is a urinary tract infection, which can be diagnosed from a urine sample. Treatment is usually antibiotics. Gonorrhea, chlamydia and some medications such as tolfenamic acid may cause burning during urination.

Self-treatment includes drinking plenty of fluids. This helps eliminate bacteria from the system. Substances that increase the acidity of urine inhibit the growth of bacteria. These include vitamin C, lingonberry juice, and buckthornberry juice.

Prevention includes emptying the bladder before and after intercourse. It is important to wipe from front to back after a bowel movement, so that bacteria do not spread to the urinary tract.

Female and Male Genital Pain, more information: pages about urinary infections.

Male genital pains

Torsion of Testis

Torsion of the testis is common in children and young adults. Symptoms are sudden pain in the testicle and swelling. Examination shows that the testicle has risen to the upper part of the scrotum. Treatment consists of ER surgery.

Male Infections

The glans and prepuce of the penis may become infected. This may be caused by congenital or later tightness of the prepuce. Treatment is bathing. If it is possible to pull the prepuce back, the infected area can be cleaned and treated with antibacterial ointments and liquids. Circumcision may be necessary at a later date.

Herpes may cause eczema with small blisters in the glans area.

The epididymis may get infected due to bacteria, gonorrhea or tuberculosis. Symptoms are swelling of the testicle and pain. Treatment includes scrotum support and antibiotics.

Testicular infection is associated with mumps. An infection of the epididymis usually does not extend to the testicle, even though there may be so much swelling that it seems to be the case.

The prostate may become acutely infected or develop a boil. In this case, symptoms are sudden fever and pain in the groin area, between the legs, and the testicles. Antibiotics normally constitute a good enough treatment. Sometimes a boil has to be lanced.

Chronic prostate infections are much more common than acute infections. The symptoms often are a slight dull ache in the groin area, lower abdomen, testicles or lumbar pelvic area in the back. There may be increased demand or difficulty to urinate. During palpation, the prostate gland feels tender.

Treatment may consist of warm sitzbaths, for instance in a bathtub. Massage of the prostate gland has also been used. Medication, that reduces the symptoms, may be used.

Tumors of the Scrotum

Malignant tumors of the scrotum are most prevalent in young men. Symptoms may be a hard lump in a testicle or a rapidly growing tumor in the scrotum. Surgery is urgently required.

Hydrocele or a gathering of solution in the scrotum is a benign tumor. It is transparent and can be seen with a flashlight. If it constitutes a large mass, it can be removed with surgery.

Varicose veins of the scrotum may also provide the impression of an enlarged scrotum. The varicose veins empty when lying down. If necessary, surgery is a possibility.

Venereal Diseases

Gonorrhea in men is almost always symptomatic. Men experience symptoms within 2-5 days of intercourse during which they contracted the disease. First symptom may be staining discharge from the urinary tract. There is often burning and itching during urination.

Diagnosis can be made by staining or from a culture taken from the infected fluid. Treatment consists of antibiotics.

It is possible to develop an infection of the urinary tract that is caused by other types of bacteria. In this case, tests will not show the presence of gonococcus. Treatment in this case is also antibiotics.

Scrotal pain

Pain in the scrotum may be local process, be referred or arise from an unknown cause. After vasectomy, or 'male sterilization', chronic pain follows in 1-15 %. Epididymitis, or inflammation of a structure at the back of the testicle, in which sperm matures and stores, may also be cause for the pain.

Chronic prostatitis may manifest as scrotal pain. Doctor usually can suspect this reason if the prostate is tender during rectal examination. Local tumor, stone in the urinary tract, overactivity of the pelvic floor muscles or operations in this area can also cause pains in the scrotum.

Sometimes no known treatable cause can be found. In this case activities that might increase the symptoms, such as riding or cycling, should be avoided. Physiotherapy may be useful in situations when there is increased activity of the pelvic floor muscles. Over the counter anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in some situations.


Acute severe pain in the testicular area.
Hard lump in a testicle.
A rapidly growing mass in the scrotum.

See a Doctor

Abdominal pain accompanied by urinary symptoms.
Abdominal pain accompanied with fever.
Prolonged abdominal pain anywhere in the abdomen.
Discharge from the urinary tract.
Burning during urination.

Male Genital Pain, more information: page about torsion of the testis.
NHS Choices about balanitis. about balanitis. pages about epididymitis.
eMedicineHealth pages about epididymitis. pages about orchitis. pages on prostatitis. pages about testicular cancer. pages on sexually transmitted diseases in men. pages about vasectomy. pages about kidney stones. genital problems in men, chart.


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